#Article #2019 – « The Academization of Intelligence: A Comparative Overview of Intelligence Studies in the West » – Kobi Michael and Aaron Kornbluth

« “Academization of intelligence” is defined as the academic research, conceptualization, and teaching about the world of intelligence. Its goal is to study the field of intelligence’s essence, activities, and influence on the national security of the state and its decision-making processes. Policymakers and political leaders have recognized the increasingly significant role of intelligence in shaping policy and decision-making processes. These developments and concerns accelerated the academization of intelligence and gave the field its due attention and prominence. As the demand for intelligence practitioners increased, American and Western universities responded to the growing need for formulating academic programs and courses devoted to intelligence, which significantly accelerated the academization of intelligence. The United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada are at the forefront of efforts to academize intelligence. In other Western countries, such as Spain, France, and Germany, the process of academicization has been slower and burdened by the darker roles played by the intelligence services at certain points in history. »

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334561627_The_Academization_of_Intelligence_A_Comparative_Overview_of_Intelligence_Studies_in_the_West

Un service peu connu: l’Epidemic Intelligence Service du Centers for Disease Control

EIS is a long-standing, globally-recognized fellowship program, renowned for its investigative and emergency response efforts. Learn about the distinguished EIS network—from the program’s active disease detectives, its alumni, and the leaders and other public health servants—who ensure the integrity and relevance of this program in order to meet modern day public health needs.

https://www.cdc.gov/eis/who-we-are/index.html

Référence:

“50 Years of the Epidemic Intelligence Service.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 50, no. 15, 2001, pp. 285–285. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23311996. Accessed 1 Apr. 2020.

 

#Livre #2019 – Researching National Security Intelligence: Multidisciplinary Approaches

Editor: Georgetown University Press – November 2019

Authors: Stephen Coulthart, Michael Landon-Murray, and Damien Van Puyvelde, Editors

Researchers in the rapidly growing field of intelligence studies face unique and difficult challenges ranging from finding and accessing data on secret activities, to sorting through the politics of intelligence successes and failures, to making sense of complex socio-organizational or psychological phenomena. The contributing authors to Researching National Security Intelligence survey the state of the field and demonstrate how incorporating multiple disciplines helps to generate high-quality, policy-relevant research. Following this approach, the volume provides a conceptual, empirical, and methodological toolkit for scholars and students informed by many disciplines: history, political science, public administration, psychology, communications, and journalism. This collection of essays written by an international group of scholars and practitioners propels intelligence studies forward by demonstrating its growing depth, by suggesting new pathways to the creation of knowledge, and by identifying how scholarship can enhance practice and accountability.

http://press.georgetown.edu/book/georgetown/researching-national-security-intelligence

Chinese Communist Espionage: An Intelligence Primer Book Launch | Center for Strategic and International Studies

« Against the backdrop of recent allegations leveled against Huawei and other Chinese entities, the nature and scope of the Communist Party of China’s (CCP) secret operations overseas, including traditional espionage, influence operations, industrial espionage, and intellectual property theft have never been more important, yet this topic remains widely misunderstood and understudied. In their new book, Chinese Communist Espionage: An Intelligence Primer, co-authors Peter Mattis and Matt Brazil focus on the world of Chinese espionage both past and present, enabling a better understanding of how important its influence is, both in China and abroad. »

The event will be webcast live from this page.

Source : Chinese Communist Espionage: An Intelligence Primer Book Launch | Center for Strategic and International Studies

12/2017 Centralizing #India’s #Intelligence: The National Intelligence Grid’s Purpose, Status, and Problems

(2018). Centralizing India’s Intelligence: The National Intelligence Grid’s Purpose, Status, and Problems. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence: Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 159-168.

Source : Centralizing India’s Intelligence: The National Intelligence Grid’s Purpose, Status, and Problems

« The struggle to ensure information flows to the people who need it while keeping that same information compartmentalized to protect it poses unique problems in the digital age. This effort is further complicated in India where budget constraints, a commitment to democracy, and being a constant target for terrorism tend to severely stretch the security services. In particular, funding for even the country’s Special Forces is problematic and has led to poorly prepared counterterrorism personnel due to limited budgets that prevent the purchase of ammunition for training.1 The Indian government’s inquiry into the 2008 terrorist attack and counterterrorist operation revealed that the Quick Response Teams had not engaged in firing practice for more than a year before the attack due to a lack of ammunition. While the report has not been officially released, the Times of India Website posted a copy on its website. Report of the High Level Enquiry Committee (HLEC) on 26/11, in December 2009, http://www.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/photo/5289981.cms [Google Scholar] To facilitate the flow of information and counter threats in the aftermath of the 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai, in which more than 160 people died, the Indian government publicly announced the development of the National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) on the belief that information sharing across the intelligence and law enforcement communities would have helped prevent that tragedy. »

The High Cost of Politicizing Intelligence – The Atlantic

« Recently—during my tenure as an analyst with the CIA—President George W. Bush’s administration exerted unusual pressure to have the CIA support its plans to invade Iraq because of that country’s alleged ties to al-Qaeda and its weapons of mass destruction program. Both assumptions proved flawed. Nada Bakos wrote about the problems with efforts to tie Iraq to al-Qaeda for Wired. An internal CIA post-mortem concluded that the CIA’s assessments of the Iraqi WMD program were a case of an effective denial-and-deception program that fed prevailing assumptions. »

Source : Trump Is Attempting to Politicize American Intelligence Agencies – The Atlantic

I’ll speak at « International Competitive/Market Intelligence Conference 2016: 19-22 April »

International Competitive/Market Intelligence Conference 2016:

Shaping the Future Through Competitive and Market Intelligence

It’s my pleasure to invite you to Europe’s leading competitive and
market intelligence conference!
The motto of this year’s conference is: “Shaping the future
through market and compe­titive intel­ligence”. We were plea­santly
surprised by a huge influx of high-quality sub­missions for our call
for spea­kers. Insight­ful, inno­vative, state-of-the-art. It was diffi­cult
to select only a few. See our agenda for an over­view and a compre­hensive description of all ses­sions! Are you ready to
check out the latest vendor of­ferings? Expect inno­vative software
and services provi­ding superior value for your organi­sation.

What’s in it for you?

“Connect” stands for various possi­bili­ties to
connect with your peers and share ex­perien­ces. Breaks, social events, our wall of fame, a job
board, and the networking sessions are all designed to enhance the networ­king oppor­tuni­ties.
Last year we intro­duced the “Uncon­fe­rence” ses­sion – a simple yet compel­ling format:
Par­tici­pants decide on special topics they want
to discuss in small for informal groups.

“Learn” is all about our sessions. Knowledge
sharing
is the name of the game. Corporate practi­tioners will share their experi­ence in
state-of-the-art case studies. Pas­sionate
CI/MI experts will challenge your mind­sets
with ins­piring impulse speeches and ex­perienced
CI prac­titio­ners will pro­vide in-depth
under­standing of key CI methods and tech­niques.
Finally our scientific track offers a unique
per­spec­tive in academic research.

“Grow” your knowledge, grow your network and
finally develop your career! As Amir Fleishmann,
one of last year’s par­tici­pants, stated: “ICI’s
International Compe­ti­tive Intel­ligence Confe­rence
is truly the center of com­peti­tive and market
intel­ligence in Europe”.

Rainer Michaeli

Director
Institute for Competitive Intelligence

Billet d’humeur – Visite d’Etat de François Hollande en Inde

 

35ème Régiment d'Infanterie - Republic Day 2016

35ème Régiment d’Infanterie – Republic Day 2016 – New Delhi

Le Président François Hollande s’est rendu en visite d’Etat à New Delhi du 24 au 26 Janvier 2016, à l’occasion de la fête nationale indienne dont il était l’invité d’honneur[i]. La visite comportait des enjeux importants pour Dassault, DCNS, Areva et les autres entreprises de la délégation[ii]. Il s’agissait également de renforcer les domaines de coopérations qui avaient été listés lors de la visite du Premier Ministre Indien en Avril 2015. Mais alors que l’on peut trouver du Twitter des messages, dont certains sont au mieux déplacés dans une délégation officielle[iii], publiés durant la parade officielle, il est nécessaire de rappeler que la France et l’Inde ont d’anciennes relations.

Les enjeux ne sont pas uniquement économiques, bien que l’Inde soit attractive avec un marché intérieur important mais des infrastructures et des industries nécessitant encore des technologies et investisseurs étrangers. Il s’agit aussi de développer des coopérations dans la recherche énergétique ou spatiale. La question du terrorisme relie également les deux pays, certains analystes indiens ayant fait le parallèle entre les attaques de Paris en Novembre et celles de Mumbai ou Pathankot en 2015[iv]. On se souviendra que Narendra Modi avait condamné les attentats de Paris[v], et que son pays est lui-même concerné par le terrorisme islamiste[vi].

En cette période de Centenaire de la 1ère Guerre Mondiale, il n’est pas inutile de rappeler que des soldats indiens se sont battus en France : Narendra Modi a inauguré un monument à leur mémoire lors de sa visite[vii]. De même durant la 2ème Guerre Mondiale, les troupes indiennes combattirent sur le sol français. Dès l’indépendance de l’Inde, la France établit des relations diplomatiques avec elle alors même qu’elle y avait encore des comptoirs dont le sort fut scellé en 1956. Néanmoins les ressortissants de Pondichéry sont encore très attachés à leur identité française avec un monument aux morts, rappelant cette autre histoire des troupes indiennes.

Les relations économiques, diplomatiques ou culturelles[viii] entre les deux pays ont donc toujours existé et ne peuvent pas se résumer aux aléas des contrats en cours de négociation, d’autant que Dassault ou Thalès sont présentes en Inde depuis plusieurs dizaines d’années. Les armées indiennes opèrent encore des Mirage et ont utilisé des tanks français dans leurs opérations militaires. Les exercices navals, aériens ou terrestres entre les deux pays sont réguliers, d’autant que la France fait partie des rares alliés de l’Inde à être présente territorialement et militairement dans l’Océan Indien, seule profondeur stratégique de l’Inde[ix].

A l’occasion de la parade militaire, l’Inde a fait un honneur particulier à la France puisque pour la première fois depuis son indépendance une unité militaire étrangère a défilé aux côtés des troupes indiennes. Clin d’œil historique significatif, il s’agit du 35ème Régiment d’Infanterie dont l’ancêtre, le 35ème Régiment d’Aquitaine, a combattu aux côtés de troupes du Royaume de Mysore contre les anglais de 1781 à 1784. Les unités de cavalerie de ce royaume furent amalgamées au fil de temps par l’Empire Britannique puis la République Indienne pour donner aujourd’hui le 61ème Régiment de Cavalerie, une des unités la plus prestigieuse de l’arme blindée cavalerie indienne[x], qui a défilé après le 35ème RI[xi].

Les relations Inde – France ne résument donc pas aux seuls enjeux économiques, même si certains commentateurs les abordent sous cet angle principalement pour que leurs aléas servent de critique politique aux gouvernements en indiens ou français. Les difficultés mises en avant ne sont pas non plus le fait unique d’une partie ou l’autre, comme on a pu le voir dans le feuilleton du contrat MMRCA[xii]. Mais ces relations étant stratégiques, car anciennes, pour les deux pays, il ne s’agirait pas que des erreurs d’appréciation ou d’ »intelligence culturelle » viennent les troubler par intérêt personnel ou méconnaissance des us, coutumes ou de l’histoire justement.

 

Références

i « Inde: les enjeux de la visite de François Hollande » – http://www.rfi.fr/asie-pacifique/20160124-inde-visite-francois-hollande-Narendra-Modi-rafales-economie

ii La liste des dirigeants membres de la délégation est à ce titre significative : https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CZWg_UvW0AEDewr.jpg:large

iii On jugera sur : https://twitter.com/MA_Jamet avec en particulier https://twitter.com/MA_Jamet/status/691922462884401152

iv « Hollande Visit: Pathankot, Paris Put Terrorism High On Agenda” – http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/hollande-visit-pathankot-paris-put-terrorism-high-on-agenda-1268489

v “Paris attacks: France terror assaults attack on humanity, Narendra Modi says” – http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Paris-attacks-France-terror-assaults-attack-on-humanity-Narendra-Modi-says/articleshow/49781610.cms

vi « Combattre l’Etat Islamique: la perspective de l’Inde », Pradhuman Singh, Pierre Memheld, Revue Défense National N°779, Avril 2015

vii « PM Narendra Modi pays tribute to Indian soldiers slain in World War-I » – http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-04-11/news/61041490_1_indian-soldiers-war-memorial-prime-minister-narendra-modi

viii Dans les domaines de l’éducation ou de l’architecture, le Président Hollande ayant commencé sa visite par Chandigarh, ville conçue par Le Corbusier.

ix « La France et l’Inde dans son Océan » – http://exmergere.info/2015/07/20/la-france-et-linde-dans-son-ocean/

x « L’Arme Blindée Cavalerie Indienne », Pierre Memheld, Batailles & Blindés N°71, Février Mars 2016.

xi « French regiment is back in India after 232 years » – http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/French-regiment-is-back-in-India-after-232-years/articleshow/50734908.cms

xii « Le Rafale s’envole pour l’Inde, mais sans le MMRCA ? » – http://exmergere.info/2015/04/14/le-rafale-senvole-pour-linde-mais-sans-le-mmrca/

Only Half of Companies Actually Use the Competitive Intelligence They Collect

Only Half of Companies Actually Use the Competitive Intelligence They Collect

jan16-26-128244186

For more than 30 years, most large corporations worldwide have adopted competitive intelligence (CI) as a way to expedite good decisions. And yet for almost every company that uses CI in their decision-making, there’s another that disregards CI’s mix of industry analysis, rival positions, and market insight to their detriment.

We recently conducted a survey of CI managers and analysts who’ve been through our training program to see how much their findings influenced major company decisions, and why. We received 236 responses from 21 industries in U.S. and European corporations, from CI-trained analysts in marketing, business development, strategy, R&D, finance, and other fields. They had an average of 6.3 years of experiencing in using CI frameworks and tools, and 62% were from companies with over $1 billion in annual sales revenues.

We found that 55% of our respondents said that their input on major management decisions made enough difference to improve the decision. But 45% said their CI analysis did not.

Why did some analysts have their input incorporated, while others didn’t? Our survey suggested several key reasons.

First, many executives decide on a course of action and then use CI to ratify their choice. When asked, “What percent of your reports do you feel are just ‘confirmatory’ for an executive who already made a decision?” a full one-third of our respondents claimed “high” or “very high.” In these cases, the analysis may just be an obligation to be checked off a list.

We also ran several simple OLS regression models and tested more than two dozen variables to see if they affected which companies actually allowed their CI analyses to influence their decisions. At the end, we found four variables turned out to be highly significant in explaining the difference in impact.

1. The analyst was assigned a “sign-off” authority over major decisions. The single most effective way to ensure intelligence is used in any given decision is to give the analyst a say in moving it forward. In practical terms this means the analyst – not just the PowerPoint deck – becomes part of discussions leading to the decision. That is the one area where “intelligent organizations” differ most from others.

2. Management was open to perspectives that were different from the internal consensus. Management that was more open to different perspective was also more likely to ask the analyst for the “big picture” rather than just the data.

3. The analyst’s report called for proactive action more than reaction. Most companies are reactive by nature, and a lot of intelligence is about reacting to competitors’ moves. However, the decisions that matter more may well be those that are proactive. When the analyst provided proactive recommendations, the analysis had more of an impact.

4. The analyst was involved in product launches. We don’t know why analysts in this area felt particularly impactful, but we do know that competitive intelligence is highly popular in tactical areas, and that product launches are an area where companies are most worried about competitors’ responses; successful product launches depend on correctly gauging the response of other players in the market. These include, naturally, customers and competitors, but also the less obvious responses by distribution channels, regulatory authorities, and influencing agents. Lack of insightful anticipation of these reactions — which is where competition analysts have the greatest expertise — leads to many more failures than there should be. Perhaps the analysts involved with product launches are thus given more of a mandate than analysts involved in other kinds of activities.

None of these steps involves spending millions on the intelligence or hiring legions of analysts. And overall, these four variables explained a respectable 40% of the variability in having an impact on decisions. In terms of magnitude of the effect, the simple “sign off” requirement from management was clearly the leading contributor to explaining variability of impact.

For these decisions – the ones that were improved by competitive intelligence — CI analysts reported many applications of their insights. While product launches were over-represented, our respondents told us about a wide array of applications for their analyses. They were evenly distributed between pursuing opportunities (46%) and reducing risks (44%), and ran the gamut from product pricing and features, capex investments, manufacturing processes, market expansion, joint ventures, M&A, and more.

For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, respondents said that use of competitive intelligence had either saved or generated millions through discontinuing ineffective drug development efforts, walking away from bad deals and/or licensing opportunities, or accelerating new drug development based on what competitors were doing. For example, as one told us, “We accelerated our orphan disease program, based on accurate prediction of rival expected entry.”

A common theme across industries was the smart reallocation of resources. One analyst told us that their company had stopped development on a project that was consuming lots of local resources after the analysis indicated it wouldn’t be effective. They then re-applied those resources to an area with true growth potential — that area is now starting to take off. In a different company, an analysis led to the cancellation of an extremely high-risk R&D program.

This is not to discount the importance of ratifying a current course of action. In one of our favorite answers to our open-response question, an analyst described how CI had “identified only a single competitor, while determining others did not have the business case to continue a pursuit.” But it’s clear to us from this and other surveys we’ve done that the companies that get the most out of CI use it for a wide array of purposes – and actually let it shape their decisions.

Management de la lutte anti-corruption et gestion du risque criminel

Les conventions internationales de l’ONU, les recommandations de l’OCDE, les lois nationales – dont l’application est globale – votées par les Etats Unis, les pays Européens et leur propres cadres réglementaires, les lois supranationales dans le domaine bancaire, sont autant de « canevas », de cadres de référence que les entreprises doivent appliquer pour lutter contre la corruption[i]. Cette multiplication nécessaire des cadres de référence crée des enjeux pour le management des entreprises, qu’elles soient présentes à l’international ou simplement exportatrices. Cela accroit le nombre de contraintes de déclaration, et documentation, pour être « conforme » à ces canevas. Les entreprises doivent avoir un outil à même d’être adapté à son environnement d’emploi, aux contraintes de chaque cadre d’action et apportant des méthodologies opérationnelles. Cet outil doit-il être normé, pour être reconnu officiellement, ou plus simplement conforme aux cadres de référence afin de pouvoir être accepté par les autorités officielles le cas échéant ? L’Observatoire du Crime Organisé (OCO)[ii] propose un système de management répondant à ces différents enjeux.

Continue reading

Operational Decision Elaboration Method as a Foresight Method: a Corporate Approach

The corporate intelligence field does not have the same characteristics, or the same stakes, than the political or the military intelligence one. But rightly, its characteristics allow to us tactical analysis to forecast what would happen. Competitors, companies, have known technologies, capacities, finances, resources and pre-defined markets. In these conditions, they have a limited number of “options”. “Operational decision elaboration method” uses tactical intelligence to determine what an “adversary” is able to do when confronted to another “party”: what are its equipments, troops, intentions, organizational and operational behaviors. Thus, a military strategist has constraints, imperatives, objectives, limited means and variables that will create an uncertainty for the fulfillment of the mission. This is where intelligence plays a role. The article would stress how this method allow to forecast companies decisions, as their variables and options are less diversified than in the military field. This method would not allow to forecast precisely every decision but limit the number of factors to monitor: the consequence is a better ability to orientate corporate intelligence means, themselves more limited than in the military field. In this case, analysis takes an even more important place.

Operational Decision Elaboration Method as a Foresight Method: a Corporate Approach

La relation Inde – Etats Unis

President Obama and Prime Minister Modi at India Republic Day parade.

President Obama and Prime Minister Modi at India Republic Day parade.

En ce jour de fête nationale en Inde, le Republic Day, le Président Obama est l’invité d’honneur des festivités. Si sa présence est symbolique, c’est la première fois qu’un président américain est invité ce jour là, il est avant tout venu avec un « agenda » chargé du point de vue économique. Avec une relation aux multiples aléas depuis l’indépendance, l’Inde et les Etats Unis ont établi de nombreuses coopérations, dans la recherche, l’industrie, ou la défense mais ne sont pas encore les partenaires les plus proches. L’Inde maintient sa propre politique étrangère, et coopérations, avec des pays comme la Russie ou l’Iran et la Chine. Les Etats Unis veulent faire de l’Inde leur soutien en Asie Pacifique pour contenir l’expansion de la Chine. Mais celle-ci est le premier partenaire commerciale de l’Inde, malgré de nombreux points de tensions territoriales. Et la Russie reste le premier vendeur d’arment, et d’usines nucléaires, en Inde.

Ces différents points sont au programme de la visite du Président Obama. Dès son arrivée, le Président Américain et le Premier Ministre Indien ont annoncé la signature d’un accord pour débloquer des milliards de dollar dans le domaine nucléaire, dans la continuation du premier accord signé en 2005. La priorité en matière de défense n’est pas tellement de vendre du matériel américain à l’Inde, bien qu’il y ait des contrats pour des avions de surveillance, de transport et les hélicoptères, mais de développer des matériels en commun. L’Inde est particulièrement intéressée par le domaine des drones et des porte-avions, équipements dont elle a besoin pour accroitre ses capacités de contrôle de ses frontières terrestres et de projection de ses forces maritimes. Sur ce dernier point, et dans le cadre de la Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI), l’Inde et les Etats Unis envisage une coopération sur le développement de la nouvelle génération de catapulte électromagnétique (Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System – EMALS).

Si l’Inde opère déjà deux portes avions, ils ne sont pas munis de catapultes, équipement clé pour déployer rapidement la force aérienne embarquée. L’Inde doit renforcer sa marine pour faire face au déploiement, de plus en plus proche de ses frontières et zones économique maritimes, de la marine Chinoise. Les autres domaines de coopération envisagés dans le DTTI sont les moteurs d’avions et les l’amélioration des Hercules C130J. Le domaine du partage de renseignement, pour le contre-terrorisme (Al Qaeda dans le sous continent indien), et la cyber-sécurité font également partie des discussions. Les Etats Unis et l’Inde ne sont pas forcément d’accord sur la politique à mener vis-à-vis du Pakistan et de l’Afghanistan. Même si ces questions de politiques étrangères sont moins abordées que les domaines économiques, elles sont importantes pour les deux pays. Enfin des questions comme les énergies traditionnelles, renouvelables et les changements climatiques, sont à l’ordre du jour.

Cette visite a été préparée, et annoncée, longtemps à l’avance aussi bien par la visite de délégations américaines dédiées à chacun des domaines abordées mais surtout par sa médiatisation. Des dizaines d’articles ont été, sont, et seront publiés sur ces sujets. Il faut également mettre les annonces déjà faites en parallèle de la politique indienne du « make in india » qui tends à favoriser les industries locales, par l’acquisition de technologies et savoirs faire, dans un premier temps par leur implication dans les grands contrats publics ouverts à la compétition internationale, puis dans un deuxième temps par leurs exportations, et fusions-acquisitions, sur des marchés comme l’Afrique, l’Amérique du Sud ou l’Europe. L’Inde se positionnant comme une puissance militaire régionale et ambitionnant un rôle diplomatique international, les Etats Unis devrait favoriser ce partenariat, les deux pays ayant une politique de plus en plus tournée vers l’Asie.

Disruptive Thinkers: The Disruptive Poets Society

“How The Dead Poets Society Advocated Disruptive Thinkers, Why DoD Shouldn’t Encourage More Disruptive Thinkers, and 10 Principles for Those That do Think Disruptively.”

U.S. Agencies See No Move by Iran to Build a Bomb

Even as the United Nations’ nuclear watchdog said in a new report Friday that Iran had accelerated its uranium enrichment program, American intelligence analysts continue to believe that there is no hard evidence that Iran has decided to build a nuclear bomb.

Recent assessments by American spy agencies are broadly consistent with a 2007 intelligence finding that concluded that Iran had abandoned its nuclear weapons program years earlier, according to current and former American officials. The officials said that assessment was largely reaffirmed in a 2010 National Intelligence Estimate, and that it remains the consensus view of America’s 16 intelligence agencies.

IB demands mechanism to track internet usage on mobile phones from Telecoms Ministry

The intelligence bureau (IB) has demanded that the telecoms ministry ask mobile phone companies to put mechanisms in place to track internet usage on mobile phones.

The IB is of the view that internet usage on computers where the connectivity is offered via Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are traceable. But the same is not applicable when it comes to browsing on mobile phones as telcos had not set up facilities for real time tracking of websites visited by their customers.

%d blogueurs aiment cette page :