#Article #2019 – « The Academization of Intelligence: A Comparative Overview of Intelligence Studies in the West » – Kobi Michael and Aaron Kornbluth

« “Academization of intelligence” is defined as the academic research, conceptualization, and teaching about the world of intelligence. Its goal is to study the field of intelligence’s essence, activities, and influence on the national security of the state and its decision-making processes. Policymakers and political leaders have recognized the increasingly significant role of intelligence in shaping policy and decision-making processes. These developments and concerns accelerated the academization of intelligence and gave the field its due attention and prominence. As the demand for intelligence practitioners increased, American and Western universities responded to the growing need for formulating academic programs and courses devoted to intelligence, which significantly accelerated the academization of intelligence. The United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada are at the forefront of efforts to academize intelligence. In other Western countries, such as Spain, France, and Germany, the process of academicization has been slower and burdened by the darker roles played by the intelligence services at certain points in history. »

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334561627_The_Academization_of_Intelligence_A_Comparative_Overview_of_Intelligence_Studies_in_the_West

#Article #2020 – « Analytic objectivity and science: evaluating the US Intelligence Community’s approach to applied epistemology » – Stephen Marrin

January 2020 – Intelligence & National Security – DOI: 10.1080/02684527.2019.1710806

« Analytic objectivity as a standard for the US Intelligence Community appears to have been drawn from idealized conceptualizations of the scientific method as a kind of value-neutral epistemological framework used to develop knowledge “objectively.” But this embrace of objectivity provides a poor foundation for contemporary conceptualizations of the applied epistemology of intelligence analysis, as well as performance standards. Instead, intelligence analysts should embrace a more realistic goal of aspiring to but never actually achieving analytic objectivity through the reduction of subjectivity while embracing the values of honesty, neutrality, and integrity encapsulated in the phrase “calling it as you see it”. »

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338396167_Analytic_objectivity_and_science_evaluating_the_US_Intelligence_Community%27s_approach_to_applied_epistemology

#Article #2020 – « Panorama du commerce maritime mondial » – IFRI

« Le commerce maritime représente 90% du commerce mondial en volumes transportés et 80% en valeur. La progression a été spectaculaire : près de 11 milliards de tonnes de marchandises ont circulé sur les mers du globe en 2017 contre seulement 550 millions de tonnes en 1950. Par comparaison, le fret aérien transporte à peine 2 millions de tonnes de marchandises. »

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