By Antonella Camerino

« The goal of this thesis is to explain why intelligence systems sometimes fail. The attacks of September11,2001 against the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington and the attacks in Paris on the evening of November13,2015 demonstrated the limitations and weaknesses of intelligence agencies and ofboththe United States and France. The intelligence process is not a perfect process and is very often subject to malfunctions that expose the systems within which they operate to risks, such as failures and strategic surprises. Faced with a new threat such as international Islamic terrorism, Western national security systems have found themselves unprepared to fight a new type of war against some non-state actors such as Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State. This asymmetric war, which uses new strategies and tactics, also depends on the degree of involvement of the affected countries in conflicts in the Middle East and on internal social causes due to phenomena of radicalization. Italy proves to be an exception in the Western jihadist landscape, due to some internal and external characteristics, not being hit by any attackof Islamic originso far. »

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